Customs and traditions in Canada
Автор работы: Пользователь скрыл имя
Тип работы: реферат
Customs and traditions in Canada.docx— 229.71 Кб
traditions in Canada
There are all sorts of religions and cultures in Canada, which makes
it multicultural. These cultures all have their own unique customs and
traditions. For example, Christians put up fir trees and stockings at
Christmas time. Santa Clause will then come and give them presents.
They also have Easter where the Easter Bunny will come and hide eggs
Customs and Traditions for the children to find. And Jewish children
have bar and bat mitzvahs at the age of thirteen.
Canada is multicultural we still share some customs and traditions that
belong to all a Canadians. For example, every year we have many non-religious
celebrations. Some of these are the Calgary Stampede, Klondike Days,
Quebec Carnival, the Maple Syrup Festivals and Canada Day. The Calgary
Stampede is held in Calgary, Alberta every year in July and it was originally
an agricultural fair. Then they included a rodeo and it evolved into
what it is today - the rodeo, rides, games, funhouses and some traditional
cowboy things. Klondike Days are held in Edmonton, Alberta every year
in July and it has log sawing and rock lifting contests to see who is
the Klondike King. “The Klondike” is a river in Alberta that had
gold discovered in it 1896. Klondike Days is to celebrate finding
the gold in the river. The Quebec Carnival is a winter event held
in Quebec City every February. It starts with a show with singing
and dancing and through the rest of the carnival they have snow swimming,
canoeing through the nearly frozen St. Lawrence River and the crowning
of the “queen” of the carnival. The Maple Syrup Festival is held
in the spring when people from small towns collect the sap from the
maple trees. Some times people can go to the towns for sleigh rides
and to see how they make maple sugar. And last, but not least,
Canada Day is the day that Canadians of all different cultural backgrounds
celebrate being Canadian.
customs and traditions Canadians share are their loyalty to the queen
and their country’s heritage. All Canadians learn about their
country through school. We all know that there were first the
natives and then the Europeans, but that the Europeans took over because
of their advanced technology.
Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions.
food does not generally differ greatly in content from everyday foods.
What distinguishes food in ceremonial settings, such as state dinners,
is not the type of food but the amount of food served and the complexity
of its presentation and consumption. Ceremonial dinners are often made
up of a long list of dishes served in a rigid sequence, eaten with utensils
specified for each portion, and presented in often elaborate arrangement
either generally, on the table as a whole, or in the particular portions
placed on each diner's plate.
same general consideration applies to meals for more private special
occasions, such as those marking important religious holidays such as
Christmas. The number of discrete dishes is usually quite large, the
preparation of each is often specialized and involved, and portions
consumed are more often than not greater than what one would consume
under other circumstances. These more private special occasion meals
often involve entire extended families sharing in both preparing and
eating the meal.
is another special meal worth mentioning, the potluck. "Potluck"
is derived from the word potlatch, a special occasion of many West Coast
First Nations peoples. The potluck involves each guest preparing and
bringing a dish to the event, to be shared by all the diners. The key
component of this particular kind of meal is food sharing among friends
as opposed to food making for family. In general, potluck meals are
meals shared by friends or coworkers. They express the symbolic importance
of the meal as a part of the moral geography of social relations among
nonkin, but distinguish this meal as an act of food sharing rather than
an act of food preparation. That is, the potluck meal expresses a sense
of community and kindness, while the family meal expresses a sense of
service, duty, and family solidarity.
Canadian christmas traditions
The influence of Europe in the Christmas traditions of Canada can be
seen in the celebrations and the various customs and traditions of the
holiday. The midnight mass is the central celebration of French Canadians
on Xmas eve, where they display a nativity scene beneath a Xmas tree.
After the mass, the family has a huge banquet as part of the Christmas
traditions of Canada. Gift-giving occurs on New Year’s Day.
the English Canadians, the Christmas traditions of Canada feasts usually
include a roast goose or beef and plum pudding. The homes are decorated
with pine bough and kissing balls. They also sing the ancient carols
during the period.
Canadians have the Tannenbaum in the place of honor in their homes.
The children await the Christkindl, a messenger from the Christ child
while the mothers make stolen and Xmas cookies. Xmas trees, ancient
carols, gingerbread houses, and advent calendars are part of their tradition.
The various Canadians of Indian heritage have a different set of the Christmas traditions of Canada for each Indian nation, including gift-giving, feasts, singing, dancing, drumming and games, which were part of their ancient winter celebrations. The Cree children visit the homes of their relatives to collect their gifts. The Inuit hold feasts of caribou, seal, raw fish, and turkey.
immigrants celebrate the feast of Saint Philip by cleaning their homes,
bodies and souls. The Eastern Orthodox religious influences in Christmas
traditions Canada blend with pagan agrarian customs. They hold a day
of fasting that ends on Xmas Eve when the hold the Holy Supper with
twelve dishes. The astrological symbolism is evident in the combination
Christian motifs and agrarian practice which are shown in the twelve
dishes representing the twelve lunar cycles of the year and the twelve
Disciples of Christ. No meat and milk is served with the dishes because
emphasis is placed on the field, garden, and orchard during the celebration.
is the second Monday in October, and is a statutory holiday in all jurisdictions
except New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island
a liturgical festival, Thanksgiving corresponds to the English and continental
European Harvest festival, with churches decorated with cornucopias,
pumpkins, corn, wheat sheaves, and other harvest bounty, English and
European harvest hymns sung on the Sunday of Thanksgiving weekend and
scriptural lections drawn from the biblical stories relating to the
Jewish harvest festival of Sukkot.
the actual Thanksgiving holiday is on a Monday, Canadians might eat
their Thanksgiving meal on any day of the three day weekend. Thanksgiving
is often celebrated with family, it is also often a time for weekend
getaways for couples to observe the autumn leaves, spend one last weekend
at the cottage, or participate in various outdoor activities such as
hiking, fishing, and hunting.
History of Thanksgiving in Canada
history of Thanksgiving in Canada goes back to an explorer, Martin Frobisher,
who had been trying to find a northern passage to the Orient. In the
year 1578, he held a formal ceremony, in what is now the province of
Newfoundland and Labrador, to give thanks for surviving the long journey.
feast is considered by many to be the first Thanksgiving celebration
in North America, although celebrating the harvest and giving thanks
for a successful bounty of crops had been a long-standing tradition
throughout North America by various First Nations and Native American
Nations and Native Americans throughout the Americas, including the
Pueblo, Cherokee, Creek and many others organized harvest festivals,
ceremonial dances, and other celebrations of thanks for centuries before
the arrival of Europeans in North America. Frobisher was later knighted
and had an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean in northern Canada named after
him — Frobisher Bay.
the same time, French settlers, having crossed the ocean and arrived
in Canada with explorer Samuel de Champlain, also held huge feasts of
thanks. They even formed 'The Order of Good Cheer' and gladly shared
their food with their First Nations neighbours.
the Seven Years' War ended in 1763 handing over New France to the British,
the citizens of Halifax held a special day of Thanksgiving. Thanksgiving
days were observed beginning in 1799 but did not occur every year. After
the American Revolution, American refugees who remained loyal to Great
Britain moved from the United States and came to Canada. They brought
the customs and practices of the American Thanksgiving to Canada. The
first Thanksgiving Day after Canadian Confederation was observed as
a civic holiday on April 5, 1872 to celebrate the recovery of the Prince
of Wales (later King Edward VII) from a serious illness.
in 1879 Thanksgiving Day was observed every year but the date was proclaimed
annually and changed year to year. The theme of the Thanksgiving holiday
also changed year to year to reflect an important event to be thankful
for. In the early years it was for an abundant harvest and occasionally
for a special anniversary.
World War I, both Armistice Day and Thanksgiving were celebrated on
the Monday of the week in which November 11 occurred. Ten years later,
in 1931, the two days became separate holidays, and Armistice Day was
renamed Remembrance Day.
January 31, 1957, the Canadian Parliament proclaimed:
Day of General Thanksgiving to Almighty God for the bountiful harvest
with which Canada has been blessed … to be observed on the 2nd Monday
farmers in Europe would hold celebrations at harvest to give thanks
for their good fortune and the abundance of food. The farm workers filled
a curved goat's horn with fruit and grain. This symbol was called a
cornucopia or "horn of plenty". When the European farmers
came to Canada they brought this tradition with them.
the early 1600s, Samuel de Champlain, a French explorer, arrived with
French settlers and also held feasts of thanksgiving called the "Order
of Good Cheer." This feast they shared with their Indian neighbours
as a token of goodwill. During the Revolutionary War, the Americans
who were Loyalists (loyal to England and the Crown) moved to Canada
and thus American Thanksgiving celebrations and traditions spread throughout
Day in Canada after Confederation was observed on April 15, 1872, to
celebrate the recovery of The Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII)
from a serious illness. In 1879, Parliament declared November 6th a
national holiday of Thanksgiving. Over the years many dates were used
for Thanksgiving, the most popular was the 3rd Monday in October.
World War I, both Armistice Day and Thanksgiving were celebrated on
the Monday of the week in which November 11th occurred. Ten years later,
in 1931, the two days became separate holidays and Armistice Day was
renamed Remembrance Day. Finally, on January 31st, 1957, Parliament
declared the second Monday in October of each year to be "A Day
of General Thanksgiving to Almighty God for the bountiful harvest with
which Canada has been blessed".
families in Canada celebrate Thanksgiving with a special dinner for
family and friends. The dinner usually includes a roasted turkey and
pumpkin pie. Thanksgiving provides an opportunity to look at pioneer
life, and it is an ideal time to celebrate the importance of Canadian
farmers for all Canadians and at the heart of the celebration is the
idea of giving thanks for the goodness of the season past.
Traditional Thanksgiving dinner:
The centerpiece of contemporary Thanksgiving dinner is a large meal, generally centered around a large roasted turkey and the following:
Pickles, green olives, celery, roast turkey, oyster stew, cranberry
sauce, giblet gravy, dressing, creamed asparagus tips, snowflake potatoes,
baked carrots, hot rolls, fruit salad, mince meat pie, fruit cake, candies,
grapes, apples, French drip coffee.
traditions derive from many countries and have been adjusted by different
cultures over time. Some favorite Halloween traditions include children
who go trick-or-treating. Young children dress-up in costumes as ghosts,
witches and other imaginative things and go door-to-door saying "Trick
or Treat", which means either you give me a treat or I play a trick
on you. Adults hand out a treat to the children and treats are usually
little pieces of candy.
celebrations in Canada began with the arrival of Scottish and Irish
immigrants in the 1800s. The Irish have a story about the origin of
Jack O’Lanterns who was a man who could not enter heaven because he
was a miser, and he was unable to enter hell because he had played practical
jokes on the devil. Therefore, he was left to saunter the earth until
Judgment Day. Jack walked around with a lantern in his hand, which was
a hot coal placed in a hollowed-out turnip, which today is symbolized
in form of a pumpkin.
use of witches, ghosts, and cats in Halloween celebrations originates
with the Druids. Halloween is thought to have originated among the ancient
Celtic Druids. The Druids were an order of priests in ancient Britain
who believed that spirits, fairies, witches, and ghosts came out on
Halloween to harm people.
name "Halloween" means "hallowed evening" since
it takes place before All Saints' Day. The Druids believed that on that
evening, October 31 - the day preceding the Christian feat of All Saints
Day, the wall between the world of the living and the world of the dead
was thinner. Therefore the use of ghosts in Halloween celebrations originates
with the Druids.
In modern times, Halloween has become a holiday, which focuses on haunted things like skeletons, cemeteries, warlocks and so on. There are many superstitions and symbols connected with the festival of Halloween, celebrated on October 31. The Druids also took part in an autumn festival called "Samhain" or "summers end". The tradition of decorating with pumpkins, leaves, and cornstalks originates with the Druid festival. It was a celebration of the food, which had been grown during the summer.
Sweden, Halloween is known as "Alla Helgons Dag" (All Saints'
Day) and is celebrated from October 31 until November 6. As with many
other holidays, "Alla Helgons Dag" has an eve, which is either
celebrated or becomes a shortened working day. The Friday prior to All
Saint's Day is a short day for universities while school-age children
are given a day of vacation.
National Day] Canada, the world's second-largest country (after Russia),
is the largest country in the Western Hemisphere and comprises all the
North American continent north of the United States...
1st of each year is Canada's most significant national holiday, equivalent
to the Fourth of July in the United States. It is not an official U.S.
and Americans enjoy a friendly relationship based on geographic proximity,
their shared status as ex-colonies of Britain, and a longtime economic
partnership. The Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Ontario and
Quebec are favorite weekend destinations for Americans in the Northern
to the combination of French and English language orientations throughout
the country, some Canadians have a speaking accent. Canadian culture
is majority English, but the province of Quebec is majority French.
(There is also a prominent Native Canadian population.) Canadians from
Quebec may have conflicting feelings about their designation as "Canadians."
In recent decades, there have been calls for a secession of Quebec from
Canada, a result of cultural antagonisms that have existed since colonial
is not an official U.S. holiday. Some Canadian organizations or clubs
in the United States, including the Canadian embassy or consulate, may
host events. These sometimes begin in the mid-afternoon, in which case
Canadian employees or those with close ties to the Canadian American
community may appreciate being given the option to leave work early
Day is a major national holiday. Government offices, banks, schools
and many businesses are closed. Some department stores, however, remain
open for holiday shoppers. In Canada's capital of Ottawa, streets are
closed off around Parliament Hill, site of the main public festivities.
In the province of Quebec, July 1 is "moving day,"
with residents vacating and moving into residences around the province.
Accordingly, moving vans must be reserved up to a year in advance and
mobility around Montreal may be affected, with streets blocked or traffic
slowed on city streets. For residents of Quebec, the French-speaking province,
St. Jean Baptiste Day ("Fute Nationale") in June generally
holds more significance than Canada Day, which is an English Canadian
observance, originally known as Dominion Day, commemorates the passing
of the British North America Act on July 1, 1867, which marked the first
step in the process of Canadian independence from Britain. Canada Day
events include parades, exhibits with Canadian themes, and the display
of the Canadian national flag with its hallmark red maple leaf emblem.
The Canadian Prime Minister of Canada gives a speech, and a special
ceremony awards new immigrants their Canadian citizenship. The Canadian
National Anthem, "O Canada!" is sung, along with the English
anthem, "God Save The Queen!" for those with a close connection
to their British heritage. The Canadian Mounties, policemen mounted
on horses, perform a routine on horseback set to music, called the "Musical
Ride." Fireworks are set off over the Parliament Buildings in Ottawa,
the national capital, and at other sites around the country.
parks and buildings across Canada are traditionally lit for the holidays
at the same moment: 6:55 on the first Thursday in December. This tradition
began in 1986 and is one uniting aspect of the country's many Christmas
a meat pie made from pork, potatoes and onions, is served on Christmas
Eve in many parts of French Canada. In Vancouver, Christmas is preceded
by two weeks of caroling from children's choirs on ships parading through
the harbor. The waterfront is decorated with thousands of lights and
becomes a festive place for the holidays.
Christmas rituals end on January 6th with the "Fete du Roi,"
the Party of the King. At this party, slices of cake are handed out
and family members search for the bean that has been baked into one
of them as they eat. The person to find it is crowned king or queen
for the day.
Scotia's celebration during the 12 days of Christmas features masked
people called belsnicklers who bounce through neighborhoods making rude
noises, demanding treats, and ringing bells. It is only when hosts are
able to identify the belsnicklers that they remove their costumes, quiet
down, and distribute candy to children who claim to have been good during